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Addressing the Social Determinants of Health in Canada: Bridging the Gap Between Research Findings and Public Policy
RAPHAEL, Dennis. Montreal : Institute for research on public policy. Policy Options March 2003, Vol 24 No 3: 35-40.

Nouvelles perspectives sur la santé des Montréalais : une action commune pour réduire les inégalités
LESSARD, Richard. Montreal : Institute for research on public policy. Policy Options March 2003, Vol 24 No 3: 35-40.

The Toronto Charter for a Healthy Canada (PDF format)
Centre for Social Justice. Toronto : Charter resolved at the conference «Social Determinants of Health Across the Life-Span: A Current Accounting and Policy Implications 29 Nov. – 1st Dec. 2002, and ratified on February 10th, 2003.


A Strategy for tackling health inequalities in the Netherlands
MACKENBACH, Johan P. and Karien STRONKS in BMJ 2002;325:1029-1032 (2 November )

This article, published in the British Medical Journal, looks at the Dutch strategy to finding solutions to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. For the last 10 years, the Dutch Ministry of Health has undertaken research to tackle the problem. An enriching experience that calls for international exchange to speed up transfer of knowledge and succeed in implementing effective interventions and policies.

Parents’ labour market participation as a predictor of children’s health and wellbeing : a comparative study in five Nordic countries
REINHARDT PEDERSEN and M MADSEN. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2002; 56 :861-867.


Income, socioeconomic status, and health : exploring the relationships
AUERBACH, James A et Barbara KIVIMAC KRIMGOLD (eds.). NPA Report #299. Washington, DC : National Policy Association , 2001. (ISBN 0-89068-154-6)

Netherlands aims to tackle health divide
SHELDON, T. In BMJ News extra 323 : 828.

Towards public health on equal terms (downloadable document PDF format)
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Sweden). Stockholm, Fact Sheet no. 3, March 2001


Equity-oriented national strategy for public health in Sweden (downloadable document PDF format)
ÖSTLIN, Piroska et Finn DIDERICHSEN. Bruxelles, European Center for Health Policy, 2000.

Overview of the Swedish government approach to develop an equitable public health strategy.

Health inequalities in Canada : current discourses and implications for public health action (downloadable document PDF format)
RAPHAËL, Dennis in Critical Public Health, Vol. 10, No 2. 2000.

Health in equal terms - National goals for public health
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Sweden). Stockholm : Government Official Reports ; 2000. (SOU 2000 : 91)

Poverty, Inequality and Health - An Iinternational Perspective
LEON, David et Gill Walt (eds.). Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000. (ISBN 0-19-263196-9)

Poverty, inequality and health is a topic of global public health significance. This book brings together a unique multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss issues relevant to our understanding of the socio-economic and biological processes that drive these inequalities. The book challenges established perceptions and views and generates new outlooks and potential solutions. The book will be of great interest to reseachers, policy analysts and policy makers from both developed and developing countries.


Socioeconomic status and health in industrial nations : social, psychological, and biological pathways
ADLER, N.E., M. MARMOT et al. (eds.). Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences 896. New York, 1999.


Social determinants of health : The solid facts.
WILKINSON, R and M. MARMOT (eds.) Centre for Urban Health, Copenhagen : World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1998. (downloadable document PDF format)

Social Inequalities in Health : Annual Report on the health of the Population
Direction de santé publique de Montréal-Centre. Montréal : Régie régionale de la Santé et des Services sociaux de Montréal-Centre, 1998.


The Black Report and beyond. What are the issues?
MACINTYRE, S. Social Science and Medicine 1997; 44 : 723-745.


Unhealthy society. The afflictions of inequality
WILKINSON, RG. London UK : Routledge, 1996.


Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the Netherlands : Impact of a five year research programme
MACKENBACH, JP. In BMJ 309 : 1487-1491.


Ottawa charter for health promotion (downloadable document PDF format)
First international conference on health promotion held in Ottawa from 17 to 21 November 1986. Ottawa : World Health Organisation, Health and Welfare Canada and the Canadian Public Health Association.


The Black Report
TOWNSEND P et N. DAVIDSON. London UK : Pelican Book, 1982.


The number one challenge in public health : broadening our vision in order to meet our true objectives (text in French)
SIEMIATYCKI, Jack A. and Lesley J. RICHARDSON. Union médicale du Canada. November 1981.

Taken in the broad sense, the environment - physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural - has a greater impact on health of the community than does the medical care system. Public health agencies have not assumed their responsibilities in protecting and improving the environment. the public health system should be actively concerned with public education, community development, and public policy on all manner of subjects (eg. transportation systems, advertising in the media, food industry, R& D). The central role of medically trained persons in the public health system is unnecessary and may hinder progress. An example is presented in the field of control of occupational carcinogenesis. Hitherto we have depended upon medical epidemiologic evidence to pinpoint dangerous products and to suggest safe exposure levels. The tremendous number of occupational exposure and the extreme difficulty of carrying out an adequate epidemiologic study for each one, renders this strategy futile and dangerous. The solutions are in the engineering field. The systematic reduction or elimination of occupational exposures to all substances - proven dangerous or not is the only long-term policy which would control occupational cancer. In this example, as in many others, imaginative non-medical expertise will prove to be of greatest importance.


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